Children’s experiences in early childhood programs can impact their developmental outcomes. While some high-quality programs promote children’s success in school and life, the majority of child care programs are of minimal to adequate quality. A recent study conducted by researchers at the Urban Institute explored the seemingly simple question, why is there so much variation in program quality? The study focused on center directors—their beliefs and decisions, and the contexts within which they work. The goal was to identify what promotes quality in some centers and what hinders quality in others.